Human Gene HIST1H2BD (uc003ngr.3) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens histone cluster 1, H2bd (HIST1H2BD), transcript variant 1, mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_021063): Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a replication-dependent histone that is a member of the histone H2B family. Two transcripts that encode the same protein have been identified for this gene, which is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015]. Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr6:26,158,349-26,158,835 Size: 487 Total Exon Count: 1 Strand: + Coding Region Position: hg19 chr6:26,158,398-26,158,778 Size: 381 Coding Exon Count: 1
ID:H2B1D_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Histone H2B type 1-D; AltName: Full=HIRA-interacting protein 2; AltName: Full=Histone H2B.1 B; AltName: Full=Histone H2B.b; Short=H2B/b; FUNCTION: Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. SUBUNIT: The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus. Chromosome. PTM: Monoubiquitination of Lys-121 by the RNF20/40 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation and is also prerequisite for histone H3 'Lys-4' and 'Lys-79' methylation. It also functions cooperatively with the FACT dimer to stimulate elongation by RNA polymerase II. PTM: Phosphorylation at Ser-37 (H2BS36ph) by AMPK in response to stress promotes transcription (By similarity). Phosphorylated on Ser-15 (H2BS14ph) by STK4/MST1 during apoptosis; which facilitates apoptotic chromatin condensation. Also phosphorylated on Ser-15 in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and in correlation with somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin class-switch recombination. PTM: GlcNAcylation at Ser-113 promotes monoubiquitination of Lys- 121. It fluctuates in response to extracellular glucose, and associates with transcribed genes (By similarity). PTM: Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes. MISCELLANEOUS: The mouse orthologous protein seems not to exist. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the histone H2B family.
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P58876
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary